Face of the month

May - 2017

Dr. Swati Puranik

Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellow
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS),
Aberystwyth University
United Kingdom
Email: swp4@aber.ac.uk
Official  Site:  Dr. Swati Puranik

Biostandups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards, this month we brought motivation and inspiration from Dr. Swati Puranik, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellow, IBERS, Aberystwyth University, U.K. In order to feed a growing population, research in the past on developing higher yielding crop varieties has significantly compromised with their actual nutritive value. Therefore, my research aims to employ crop species native to south Asia and sub Saharan Africa, collectively termed as ‘millets’, as a sustainable and low-cost solution to these health problems. Dr. Swati is one  true motivation for all the women who wish to see future in feeding the globe. Biostandups honours Dr. Swati as “SHERO”.

I received my Ph.D. degree from Jamia Hamdard University, India in 2012 and joined as a Research Associate at the National Institute of Plant Genome Research the same year. Thereafter, I started as a Post-doctoral fellow at Michigan Technological University on a two-year NSF-funded project in September 2013. As part of the project, I used transgenic and QTL mapping approaches to identify and validate cell wall biomass genes for biofuel production in poplar. Currently, I am working as a Marie Skodowska-Curie postdoctoral research fellow at Aberystwyth University (2015-2017). Here, I will apply my expertise in transcriptomics, genomics, biotechnology and genetics to improve Calcium content in millets and other crops for promoting health benefits in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

am working with Dr. Rattan Yadav towards my Marie Skodowska-Curie research project funded by the European Commission.
The main aspect of my work aims to investigate the genetic variations of Calcium accumulation in finger millet germplasm using chemical phenotyping and genomics, and to use this knowledge in further improving the concentration of this micronutrient in finger millet and other staple crops. The ultimate outcome of this work is to develop nutrient and health efficient crops in order to reduce the health and economic impacts of osteoporosis.

My current research focus is on genetics and molecular biology of crop plants, stress biology, Nutritional genomics, epigenetics, bioenergy.

BS: Brief us about your professional journey so far?

SP: After completing my Ph.D. in 2012, I worked as an institute funded postdoctoral fellow at the National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR), New Delhi, India for one year. In 2013, I joined as a postdoctoral research scientist at the Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, USA. Here I worked in a NSF-funded interdisciplinary project pertaining sustainable forest-based biofuel pathways to hydrocarbon transportation fuels. Since 2015, I am associated with the Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom to carry out my research in the theme area of ‘Biology that delivers improved health and well-being of humanity’.

BS: Currently your research interest focus on developing better and healthier millet varieties. How do your work benefits society?

SP: More than 3 billion people, the majority living in developing countries, are suffering from malnutrition and related illnesses. Such nutrition-related non-communicable illnesses account for almost 79% of deaths in these regions. For poorer communities in India and Africa, treatment costs for such illnesses can exceed the annual household income. In order to feed a growing population, research in the past on developing higher yielding crop varieties has significantly compromised with their actual nutritive value. Therefore, my research aims to employ crop species native to south Asia and sub Saharan Africa, collectively termed as ‘millets’, as a sustainable and low-cost solution to these health problems. This is because millets are naturally enriched in valuable micronutrients and potential nutraceuticals. Increasing the levels of essential micronutrients, through exploration of their genetic variations in millets, can help fight micronutrient malnutrition or ‘hidden hunger’. Further, such crop varieties will benefit the smallholder farmers who will grow them (by adding value to their food products) and also provide valuable raw material to industries for developing millet-based functional food.

BS: You have exposure to scientific cultures across different continents? Which is your favourite working environment?

SP: I consider myself lucky that I got the opportunity to work across continents which has immensely boosted my confidence and allowed me to grow as a researcher. I will be dishonest if I say I just blended right-in to the various working cultures. But, each place has left its own imprint on my professional and personal journey. In India I developed my scientific aptitude, learned about the importance of punctuality in Germany, professionalism in USA while UK has extended my outreach competence. Thus, it will be very hard to pick a favourite.

BS: What was your most satisfactory moment in your career so far?

SP: I would say there have been many small satisfying moments, like awarding of doctoral degree and receiving national and international funding for my research. Yet, I do feel an immense sense of personal contentment when the students and interns, which I directly or indirectly supervise for their research projects, move ahead successfully in the field of science. It is then that I feel credited as a research supervisor/mentor.

BS: Have you ever had “WOW” moment in your professional journey or is it yet to come?

SP: Being awarded the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship by the European Commission was definitely a dream come true, as it is highly prestigious and competitive in nature. When you are recognized for your research efforts and scientific caliber, even outside your home country, which is a big motivation. I hope, there will be more such moments in the future.

BS: What first attracted you to the field of plant genetics?

SP: The interesting thing is that I am not trained as a geneticist! But, I have always been curious about the sheer extent of species diversity in the plant kingdom. I used to love the genetics class in my B.Sc. (Hons.) degree in Botany and this further extended during my doctoral and postdoctoral research. This is how my work has expanded into exploring the extent of genetic diversity present in the millet genome.

BS: How do you describe yourself as a human being and your best hang out routine?

SP: Although I am a bit on the reticent side, I am very friendly and easy-to-approach person who can adjust with a variety of people from different cultures. I am an avid learner which helps me take up new challenges and work hard towards achieving them. I love to travel to new places, cook new cuisines and read fiction in my spare time.

BS: Was scientific exploration and science‐based topics of interest to you as a child? Do you remember what sparked your interest in science?

SP: I recall a funny incidence from my childhood that I used to sow mango (my favorite fruit) seed in our garden, and get very excited to see it germinate and grow into seedling in the hope to receive bumper mango harvests. Once I was in school, science, especially biology, was my favorite subject and in fact, always I scored the highest in this particular subject. I related very well with biology because it allowed me to witness the science behind life, more closely. These little things sparked my interest and I just knew I had to be a biologist.

BS: Looking back on your academic career, which professors/mentors have had the most impact on you? Why?

SP: I will credit Dr. Manoj Prasad and Dr. Alok K. Sinha from NIPGR. These well-recognized scientists provided me a research platform and trusted me to handle projects independently which promoted my project management and organizational skills. Fundamentals of plant molecular biology and genetics that I learned from them are still helping me professionally. Under their mentorship, I was able to develop my research dissemination skills by publishing >20 international peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and conference papers. Whenever I visit India, I love to meet them and they are always full of kind words that motivate me to keep performing my best.

BS: Describe your experience as a female scientist?

SP: There have been subtle incidences where it has been implied that I should take up an ‘easy’ job post-marriage or unintentional jibes to give up a fellowship opportunity to allow a male counterpart secure it to support his family. But, my family has made sure that my vision stays focused to achieve my career goals. I feel very gratified that I am driving my energy and knowledge to try and better the society. So overall, my experience has been very enlightening.

BS:  Still “Women scientists are often invisible”- Your comment on that?

SP: It is true that women often make only a small percentage of the scientific profession, especially in a country like India. Many succumb to the demands of family and academic/research pressure. This invisibility severely escalates in the leadership hierarchy in academia with the scarce representation of women. Often, I have encountered no women representatives on job interview panels. We need pioneering women to be more assertive and set leadership examples for younger generation of women scientists to follow.

BS: What more do you think could be done to encourage women into the fields of science?

SP: There has to be more motivation and support both at professional, personal and policy fronts. More women-specific fellowships, grants and awards for early-, mid- and late-career researchers can ensure that we are never left behind in the scientific lot. Incentives, schemes are career opportunities for non-resident women scientists can be an untapped source of brain gain. Further, through my personal selection for a women-only workshop, I think regular leadership training programs should be promoted by organizations. There should also be solutions for women academicians or researchers to make a career transition into scientific industries and vice-versa.

BS: Which women inspired your scientific career and why?

SP: I have not had the chance to be directly supervised by women scientists, but there have been many mentoring forces. I would give due credits to my lecturers at Gargi College, University of Delhi for instilling the feeling of ‘I belong to plant science’.

BS: What words of encouragement do you have for any women wishing to pursue a career in science?

SP: Initially, a career in science may seem full of challenges, but so is anything else when you are starting. Be patient. You should be excited to see how your ideas and knowledge can help in making a difference in the scientific world. Of course, somedays are very productive, some days could be better. But every morning, go into work with the thought that there is so much to learn and understand each day, let’s take one step at a time. You will appreciate that your efforts will become your rewards.

BS: Do you think unconventional methods and hands‐on activities are needed to engage the young scientists of tomorrow? Why?

SP: Definitely. Programs and workshops for personal, professional and leadership development, can project young researchers in the right direction. For example, I am planning to participate in a program where early- to mid-career researchers are chosen from various disciplines to explore ways to collaborate and answer current research challenges. Organizing even small coffee-time events (such as CV and cover letter clubs) improve your profile, widen your horizon and also develop your interpersonal skills. An in-house mentor-mentee partnership can also provide support and guidance to develop as the future research leaders.

BS: Pen down top challenges women are facing and need attention?

SP: Speaking in general as a women, patriarchal mindset, social injustice and gender stereotyping are some of the biggest challenges anywhere in the world. We should have liberty to make our decisions and question any kind of bias or conventional outlook.

April - 2017

Dr. Sushila Maharjan

Research Director
Research Institute for Bioscience & Biotechnology (RIBB)
Nakkhu 44600
Lalitpur, Nepal
Email ID: sushila@ribb.org.np

Biostandups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards, this month we brought motivation and inspiration from Dr. Sushila Mahrjan, research director at Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology (RIBB), Nepal. Currently, she is a research scholar at Brigham and Women’s Hospital at Harvard Medical School, USA. Her present research is based on developing ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems to mimic human organs in vitro and also to fabricate functional polymeric biomaterials to control cellular behaviors with particular emphasis on developing engineered materials and systems for tissue engineering. Dr. Sushila won “The Elsevier Foundation Award 2016”.  She represents Nepal at global level. Sheis one  true motivation for all the women who wish to see future in Science. Biostandups honours Dr. Sushila as “SHERO”.

Dr. Sushila Maharjan is a research director at Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology (RIBB), Nepal since its establishment on 2011. She is one of the founding members of RIBB and serving as a member of board of directors.

Currently, she is a research scholar at Brigham and Women’s Hospital at Harvard Medical School, USA. Her present research is based on developing ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems to mimic human organs in vitro and also to fabricate functional polymeric biomaterials to control cellular behaviors with particular emphasis on developing engineered materials and systems for tissue engineering.

Before joining Harvard Medical School, she was a postdoc fellow at laboratory of Biomedical Polymers and Tissue Engineering at Seoul National University, Korea. Dr. Maharjan received her Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Sun Moon University, Korea, Master’s degree in Chemistry and Bachelor’s degree in Biological Sciences, both from Tribhuvan University, Nepal. She has extensive research experience in diverse fields including molecular biology and biotechnology, metabolic and genetic engineering, drug and vaccine delivery, and biomaterial and tissue engineering.

She has contributed over 20 articles in peer-reviewed international journals and 2 book chapters. Dr. Maharjan’s exemplary achievements in research have been recognized by prestigious “Elsevier Foundation Awards for Early Career Women Scientists, 2016” and “Best Poster Award, Korean Society of Glycobiology 2011”. She has also received several fellowships and research grants including “American Fund for Alternatives to Animal Research fellowship 2016”, “Brain Korea 21 PLUS fellowship 2015”, TWAS Research Grants in Basic Sciences 2013,”, Korean Research Fund Scholarship 2007- 2010″, and Sun Moon University PhD fellowship 2006.

Dr. Maharjan’s research goals are to develop an independent and multidisciplinary research program at the interface of molecular biology, biomaterials, controlled drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Currently, she aims to develop ‘organ on a chip’ models to mimic human organs in vitro. Dr. Maharjan is a member of the ‘Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD)’ and TWAS (The World Academy of Sciences) Young Affiliate.

The worldwide emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens has become a major threat. Therefore, I have always been enthusiastic to develop new antibiotics/drugs against multidrug resistant ‘superbugs’ from the indigenous Streptomyces of Nepal.

Apart from the Streptomyces natural product research, my other goals are to develop a multidisciplinary research program at the interface of molecular biology, genetic engineering, biomaterials engineering and tissue engineering. Specifically, my aim is to develop ‘organ on a chip’ models to mimic human organs in vitro and also to fabricate functional polymeric biomaterials to control cellular behaviors with particular emphasis on developing engineered materials and systems for tissue engineering.

Sabeera: Describe about yourself as a scientist?

Sushila: I was always a good observer at scientific experiments from my school days. Besides, I was much curious to learn practical methods to observe the scientific principles in real experiments. Thus, the enthusiasm for research induced my capacity for creativity and problem-solving ability. I am self-motivated and I am passionate about continuing to learn and keeping my mind open for all new ideas.

Sabeera: What was your motivation to choose biological sciences being graduated in Chemistry?

Sushila: I completed Intermediate in Science (ISc) and Bachelor of Science (BSc) with a major in biology. At the last semester of my undergraduate study, I realized that chemistry is the basis of all kinds of research. Chemistry is often called the central science. Therefore, I completed Master of Science (MSc) in Organic Chemistry from Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal. During MSc, I became acquainted with many important natural products, such as antibiotics and anticancer drugs, that are boon to human life. As my interest shifted to develop medically useful chemicals from biological sources, I focused my research on the development of novel antibiotics and anticancer drugs through genetic engineering of bacteria during my PhD study.

Sabeera: Tell us about your early life education and experience?

Sushila: When I finished SLC, the trend was, once you get first division you tend to study science. I was not an exception. I was an average student during my student life until undergraduate. However, my passion to complete higher studies led me to receive scholarship to undertake MSc in organic Chemistry at Tribhuvan University, Nepal. The scholarship that I received motivated and directed me to do wet lab based research work. By then I had learnt that my interest was in scientific research.

Sabeera: You have been exposed to different cultures in your scientific journey. Share your feelings?

Sushila: Nepal is a home of diverse cultures itself. In fact, Nepal is a multi-linguistic, multi-cultural, multi-racial, and multi-ethnic country. When I was pursuing my MSc degree, there was only one university in Nepal for higher study in chemistry. So, I had an opportunity to meet colleagues with different backgrounds from all over the country. Initially, I had little difficulty in communication with new colleagues from diverse cultures but my ability to carefully listening and understanding enhanced my interaction with them. No doubt, there was a big cultural shock when I first visited South Korea for my PhD study at the Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sun Moon University. The department is the host for many international students where I had an opportunity to work in a completely new environment facing a new culture and using a foreign language. I was very excited, but at the same time a little nervous. It took me a while to adapt Korean customs and cultures. I was much influenced by their disciplines and the tradition to respect their elders.

Sabeera: You are a most influential person and stand as one of Top 12 Nepali Scientist around the world. How did you feel about this? 

Sushila: I had always a dream to be known as a scientist from Nepal to the world. Amid a few famous people from Nepal, it is my fortune to be selected as an influential scientist of Nepal. I feel so honored to represent the women of Nepal.

Sabeera: Tell us about your current scientific affiliation at Harvard medical school, USA?

Sushila: I love learning and discovering new things. I believe that the pursuit of knowledge is the most important and fulfilling human endeavor. To further broaden my skill of biomaterial engineering and gain the requisite technical knowledge in tissue engineering and on organ-on-a-chip, I joined Brigham & Women’s Hospital at Harvard medical school.

Sabeera: 5 women scientists have been awarded with “The Elsevier Foundation Award 2016”. How did it happen? Was winning the award added befits to your career development?

Sushila: In 2015, I had been performing a research funded by TWAS (The World Academy of Sciences) to isolate novel antibiotics/anticancer drugs from indigenous Streptomyces in Nepal. Our team at RIBB could obtain very promising results from the research. While the successful results boosted my confidence level as a scientist, my research team encouraged and nominated me for the award. On a cold day of December 2015, I received a warm news of my selection for the award. I believe that initiating the basic science research in Nepal through RIBB and getting success to some extent are the keys that helped me to receive this recognition. On top of that, my research was focused on subjects related to Nepal and its biodiversity. After receiving the award, my research and social life have changed drastically. While the award brought me a fame to the world of biotechnology, it also put a heavy responsibility on me to contribute for my society.

Sabeera: Tell us what was the proposal that brought you the award?

Sushila: Elsevier Foundation Award is given to young women scientists in the developing countries in recognition of their excellence in research that has strong potential health and economic benefits. Despite hurdles, I had started my scientific career in Nepal with the support and encouragement from my team. In my part, I proposed my future research plans to develop new antibiotics or drugs to combat various drug-resistant infections and cancers. Due to my previous achievements and potential contributions for the advancement of Science in Nepal, the award reviewers should have selected me for the award.

Sabeera: Have you been nominated and won any other awards/prizes apart from The Elsevier Foundation Award 2016”? 

Sushila: Yes, I have received a prestigious Brain Korea 21 Program for Leading Universities & Students (BK 21 PLUS) fellowship, a human resource development program initiated by the Korean government, in 2015 to visit as a postdoc fellow at Seoul National University. Under the Research Grant in Basic Sciences from The World Academy of Science (TWAS), I got my first research funding in 2013 to conduct an independent research as a principal investigator. I was also honored with Korean Research Fund Scholarship, given to International Intelligent Student in Korea for three years, in 2007- 2010 and PhD fellowship from Sun Moon University, Korea in 2006.

Sabeera: How do you want to help society through your research? 

Sushila: I always had great intention to develop natural product-derived therapeutically important drugs from natural sources of Nepal. Nepal is well known for biodiversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. In fact, the main theme of my PhD thesis was to design and develop novel antibiotics and anticancer drugs by genetic engineering of Streptomyces bacteria. These bacteria are the original sources of the most of the important antibiotics that are in use today. However, antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections, and drug-resistant diseases are another serious problem. My research revealed big insights into the modification of microbial synthesis of medically important antibiotics/drugs to combat the emerging drug-resistant diseases.

After completion of my PhD, I returned to Nepal and continued my research on Streptomyces, funded by TWAS, to find novel Streptomyces and subsequently new antibiotics and drugs to overcome various infectious diseases and cancers that are creating major health issues worldwide. My team has successfully isolated several Streptomyces that produce highly efficient antibiotics to kill various pathogens including multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, some natural products from these Streptomyces have also demonstrated potent anticancer activities against various cancer cell lines. These findings could lead to new kinds of antibiotics/therapeutics for drug-resistant infections and cancers. Hence, my research on Streptomyces can have a great impact on antibiotics and drug discovery for the benefit of science and humanity.

Besides, one of the important missions of our institute is to expose young graduates to modern science and technology and to equally encourage to study those disciplines, fostering their future success. In addition, RIBB also offers training courses to local companies and organizations, and organizes workshop in local level, especially in rural areas so that greater number of women can participate and get benefited.

Sabeera: “First female Nepali scientist to win international award” – Comment please?

Sushila: I am really honored and delighted to represent myself as a first female Nepali scientist to international community.

Sabeera: What was your most satisfying achievements in career? 

Sushila: Nepal is lagging in science and technology. Because science, technology and engineering are key drivers to socio-economic development, no nation could grow without proper implementation of science and technology. My country desperately need young scientists and scholars to create new educational system that emphasizes the development of science, technology and engineering for the development of the nation. I always wanted to become an independent investigator at a university or institution where I can share my experience and knowledge with next generation and where I can conduct research, using natural resources from Nepal, to identify and focus on key issues that address present challenges in biomedical field. My most satisfying achievement in my research career is the establishment of research institute and to pursue scientific research career in Nepal.

Sabeera: How do you find solution to a problem? What motivates you to stay focused? 

Sushila: I believe every problem has solution if you try to find it. When I have problem, I first look at each step of a process causing the problem, check the variables associated with the problem and finally locate the origin of problem. If I cannot reach a concrete decision by myself, I share with my colleagues and find a solution through discussion. I keep myself up-to-date on the current research topics and trends. So, any interesting discovery usually excite my zeal and motivate me to work more.

Sabeera: Being a women professional have you ever faced gender discrimination?

Sushila: As a woman, I have faced both social and professional discrimination.

Sabeera: Gender equity is lacking in Science and it’s a global issue. Do you agree?  

Sushila: Yes, the proportion of women in Science is considerably lower than the proportion of men around the globe. Normally, women in developing countries have fewer opportunities for higher education mainly due to economic and social problems. Although women in developed countries make up high percent of their participation in high level of education, women are still underrepresented in the fields of science and engineering due to gender bias.

Sabeera: How to raise the bar for women to choose and stay in the Science field? 

Sushila: Women are as competitive as men when they are freed from household works. In most cases, when women are at the peak of their careers, they are tied to social responsibilities, such as getting married and raising children, and therefore their energy and enthusiasm toward Science eventually decline. Until our male dominated society do not realize the importance and potential of women, women need to suffer and sacrifice their careers. If women are kept free from social bars and pay rewards for their attempts, I believe women can compete equally as men in any field of Science.

Sabeera: Do Nepali nationals show enthusiasm to choose Science as a career?

Sushila: In recent years, there has been growing interest in Nepali nationals to seek career in Science. But, due to social, economic and political problems in Nepal, many of these interested candidates seek jobs abroad to fulfill their dream.

Sabeera: Can you mention any top 5 difficulties women face to be a Scientist?

Sushila: I’d like to mention several difficulties that women face today to become a Scientist. Women are severely underrepresented in Science due to culture of gender bias, less access to higher education, discrimination at position or salary for women, and struggle to balance career and personal life.

Sabeera: How to increase the visibility of women professionals to improve their participation? 

Sushila: To raise the visibility and representation of women in Science, we need to support early career researchers by funds, encourage women’s participation in seminars with rewards and create a visible community of women role models. Personally, I believe, a better result would come if we could create an environment to allow men to take on equal responsibilities in family life through making career breaks and working part-time to support the family instead of women.

Sabeera: Where do you want to see yourself in coming 5-10 years?

Sushila: Ten years from now, I want to see myself as a committed and successful scientific personality with several scientific publications that benefit students, faculty, society and eventually a country.

Sabeera: Share your opinion about our project “Biostandups”?

Sushila: Biostandups did not come to my site before this interview. I was very delighted to see the website dedicated for women in Science. In my opinion, Biostandups stands as a hub of women for women and it has been doing a tremendous job to promote the visibility of women professionals and their contribution to society and nation. In other way, Biostandups is a great platform to encourage and inspire many young women scientists around the globe.

February - 2017

Dr. Nirmala Hariharan

Assistant Adjunct Professor
Department of Pharmacology
School of Medicine
University of California (UC), Davis
451 Health Sciences Dr,
GBSF 3502, Davis, CA-95616
Email: nhariharan@ucdavis.edu

Biostandups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards, this month we brought motivation and inspiration from Dr. Nirmala Hariharan, stem cell biologist, activist who constantly shout outs the importance of women empowrment in STEM. She is active on many scientific and minority societies to share her views openly. Dr. Nirmala is one  true motivation for all the women who wish to see future in Science. Biostandups honours Dr. Nirmala as “SHERO”.

Dr. Nirmala Hariharan hails from Chennai, India, where she grew up and did her schooling. She completed her undergraduate education from Birla Institute of Technology and Science at Pilani, India and majored in Biological Sciences and Chemical Engineering. Dr. Hariharan obtained her PhD in 2011 from the department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (now called Rutgers New Jersey Medical School). She studied the molecular regulation of autophagy in the heart for her doctoral work. Dr. Hariharan subsequently joined as a postdoctoral fellow in San Diego State University, where she worked on cardiac stem cells and myocardial regeneration. She also got her first faculty appointment at San Diego State University. Since 2015, she has been an Assistant Adjunct Professor in the department of pharmacology at University of California, Davis. In over ten years as a researcher in the basic cardiovascular sciences, Dr. Hariharan has made many important discoveries determining the molecular basis of heart disease and has garnered several awards for her cutting-edge work.

Dr. Hariharan studies molecular signaling pathways regulating aging of the heart and is specifically interested in understanding how adult cardiac stem and progenitor cells age. She currently focuses on studying mechanisms that are essential for the maintenance of myocardial stem cells. Dr. Hariharan is also interested in delineating signaling cascades that are deregulated during heart disease and strives to find cures and therapies to ameliorate cardiovascular afflictions.

Sabeera: What was your own personal motivation for choosing Pharmacology as your research focus?

Nirmala: I am affiliated with the department of pharmacology at UC Davis, but my main research focus is in molecular cardiology. My passion for heart research combined with training in exceptional cardiovascular research laboratories have motivated me to choose molecular cardiology as my research focus.

Sabeera: what was the fascinating subject when you were a kid at high school?

Nirmala: Apart from Biology, I enjoyed studying languages. English, Hindi and Sanskrit were absolutely fascinating to me.

Sabeera: What is your most fascinating area of research other than Pharmacology if any?

Nirmala: I’ve always been passionate about research in the basic cardiovascular sciences which is why I chose molecular cardiology as my research area. Recently I find aging research to be very exciting as well. Other broader research areas that fascinate me are cell and molecular biology and physiology.

Sabeera: What is the secret behind your success?

Nirmala: I am very persistent. I think sticking on without quitting and striving to go forth despite the difficulties has helped me. I’m philosophical; I strongly believe in karma and the philosophy that we only have control over our actions and never over the results of our actions, as preached in the Gita. This helps me focus and remain motivated without getting deterred by rejections and failures, which are just part of the game in science.

Sabeera: As assistant professor what do you like most between teaching or research?

Nirmala: I enjoy both thoroughly. Research and the quest of discovering the unknown is very exciting. At the same time, I enjoy class room teaching as well as one-one advising. Mentoring students and trainees in the lab is extremely satisfying and it gives me the opportunity to excel as a teacher and as a researcher.

Sabeera: As a woman, have you ever faced intolerance situations against gender diversity in your career?

Nirmala: Yes, I have witnessed gender and racial intolerance in some subtle ways. Thankfully, I have extremely supportive mentors, colleagues and family who have helped me overcome such situations.

Sabeera: You have studied at institutions around the world, including India and the US. What are some of the similarities and differences you have observed and do you have a favorite?

Nirmala: I did my undergraduate education at BITS, Pilani, India, where there were some similarities with the system followed in the USA. In BITS, students get to choose their electives and decide the academic course load, which is consistent with styles followed in the USA. The system of student evaluation is also similar to that followed in America. I don’t have a favorite, I’ve learned a lot and cherish my educational experiences from both countries.

Sabeera: Tell us any craziest thing you ever done in your career/life?

Nirmala: I don’t think I’ve done anything too crazy. The most I’ve done is been in the lab past midnight for experimental time points, had a face-face meeting with one of my mentors at 11 PM, had a phone call with the Principal Investigator to discuss data at 4 AM just before a grant submission, volunteered as an undergraduate student with a mentor who worked very early in the morning and insisted on us starting experiments at the latest by 6AM (even in the winter), slept overnight in the lab before a lab meeting because I was too tired to commute back home!

Sabeera: In 2014, You were finalist for Melvin L Marcus Young Investigator Award in Cardiovascular Sciences, American Heart Association. How did that happen and how you feel about your achievement?

Nirmala: I learned about the early career award competitions from the American Heart Association by watching colleagues from my doctoral lab compete every year. The competitions are mainly for postdoctoral scholars and so when I started my postdoctoral training, I told my mentor in the very first year that I wanted to compete in one of the early career award competitions and my mentor was extremely supportive of my goals and aspirations. With a lot of hard work and support from my colleagues and mentor, I competed as a finalist for the Melvin L Marcus Young Investigator Award in 2014. I feel grateful about this achievement and am extremely thankful for all the opportunities I’ve been given in my career through the support of my mentors, mentees and colleagues.

 Sabeera: Do you support women empowerment in STEM? What is your opinion on Women in STEM?

Nirmala: Yes, very much. I am passionate about women and minority rights and have been striving to contribute to women empowerment in my field – biomedical research. As a first step, I am serving on committees that enable me to better understand and relate to problems faced by other women in my field. I am a member of the UC Davis Vice Chancellor’s Advisory Committee for Women in Medicine and Health Sciences (WIMHS) and we advocate the inclusion and advancement of women in medicine and biomedical sciences. As a WIMHS member representing early career faculty in the basic sciences, I also lead an idea incubation committee to formulate strategies to enhance the retention of women in academia.

Women across all cultures find it very difficult to balance familial expectations with the demands of a career in research and many quit academia and research altogether. This attrition leads to a significant loss of talent and money for the institution. In my opinion, strong and effective mentoring is extremely important to ensure women thrive in biomedical research as well as other STEM fields. At UC Davis, we have a mentoring academy where I serve as a co-instructor to the academy’s advisory committee and we devise strategies to provide the most effective mentoring to all who need it. Since the beginning of my faculty appointment, I have actively taken steps to mentor women and I’m proud to say that over 75% of my mentees are women. As a mentor, I share my personal experiences and provide guidance and career advice to my mentees as they find their place in science. I strongly believe that the steps I am taking will contribute towards supporting and empowering the next generation of women scientists that come out of my lab.

Sabeera: How do you manage work and personal life?

Nirmala: Achieving optimal work-life balance is always a struggle. I’ve been able to manage my work and life, thanks to my extremely supportive husband and family. In my opinion, it is important to remember that the equilibrium between work and personal life will not always be in fine balance. Sometimes work will be a higher priority (like before a grant or manuscript deadline) and at other times family has to be a higher priority. Knowing how to prioritize is key to efficiently manage work and personal life. It is also extremely important that your significant other and family recognizes these priorities and works with you to achieve a balance.

 Sabeera: Women empowerment in STEM is a global issue. How do you feel about it?

Nirmala: Yes, women empowerment in STEM is a global issue. I think achieving women empowerment globally requires sustained efforts at the home and organizational fronts combined with a change in the mindset and attitude of society at large. Achieving equity between men and women and ending the disparities in gender-specific roles is critical for women empowerment, not just in STEM fields, but in other professions as well.

Many steps are being taken across the world to enhance and empower women in STEM, which include a) increasing awareness of disparities that exist between men and women in STEM fields, b) community outreach programs to inspire young girls and women to pursue STEM careers, c) providing support at the organisational level to ensure closing of gender gap. Such initiatives are the priority focus in many countries, which is definitely the right trend to achieve global empowerment of women.

 Sabeera:  Do you think women empowerment in Science and Technology is underpinned in India?

Nirmala: India is definitely taking steps towards the empowerment of women in science and technology. Many Indian women are qualified engineers and doctors. We have several women leaders and entrepreneurs too. There has been an increase in the number of women who enroll in graduate programs in India, but unfortunately, very few Indian women scientists continue to pursue careers in academia and research. This has to change and efforts should be taken by the government and the society to support women who pursue careers in scientific research and leadership.

Sabeera: We have very few women pioneers in science and technology. What is the reason behind it?

Nirmala: A recent article in New York Times highlights some of the issues including sexism and discrimination faced by Indian women in STEM – http://nytlive.nytimes.com/womenintheworld/2015/06/30/discrimination-plagues-women-scientists-in-india-but-the-larger-issue-is-social/

Majority of women in India do not get the support they require to pursue a challenging career of science and research. The average Indian woman is expected to conform to defined roles set by family and society at large. The hardships of balancing familial, cultural and societal expectations along with professional demands are tremendous. It takes the support of several people in the family and work front (including a network of mentors, and strong support from the leadership within the organisation) for a woman to become a pioneer in science and technology and unfortunately not many women have that kind of support system in place.

Sabeera: Do you have any suggestions to raise the bar for women scientists?

Nirmala: In my opinion, we have extremely talented women scientists and more than raising the bar, our priority should be to increase the opportunities given to them to help them become pioneers and leaders in academia and scientific research. Additionally, we should also strive to increase the number of women in STEM fields. My suggestions to the next generation of women scientists pursuing careers in academia and research are – a) have a team of men and women mentors to guide you through the ups and lows of your career while offering advise on work-life balance, b) do not be afraid to share/voice out your issues and opinions, c) be brave and daring, d) stand up for your rights, e) ensure your family understands, supports and values your aspirations and successes.

Sabeera: What are the challenges for women in science that need immediate attention?

Nirmala: Like I mentioned in my previous answers, the inequities between men and women must be recognised and addressed. It requires a change in attitude within homes and in the work place. More avenues should be created for the advancement of women scientists, in the form of additional funding opportunities, child and family care facilities, maternity and paternity leave, mentoring networks, recognition and rewards, and forums to voice out abuse, sexism and implicit bias against women and minorities. Increasing awareness of the challenges faced by women is crucial; for instance, the leadership within work institutions should be trained to acknowledge the day to day, work-life balance struggles faced by women scientists. These strategies if implemented immediately will go a long way in alleviating the challenges faced by women in science.

Sabeera: Share your opinion about our new start-up biostandups.com?

Nirmala: I hadn’t heard of biostandups.com until you contacted me. This interview prompted me to check your website and I must say it’s a remarkable venture. Your website is creating awareness, inspiring the next generation of women scientists and serving as a link to connect with other women scientists from across the world. Kudos to you!

Dr. Hariharan learns and sings Carnatic Music, enjoys going on long walks with her dog and loves watching movies and reading books.

January - 2017

Dr. Renu Agrawal

Ex. Chief Scientist
Advisor for outreach activities
Department of Microbiology and Fermentation
Central Food Technological Research Institute
Mysore, India.
Email: renuagrawal46@rediffmail.com

Biostandups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards, this new year we brought motivation and inspiration from Dr. Renu Agarwal activist, scientist and most off all a great influencer from CFTRI, Mysore-India. She is one  true motivation for all the women who wish to see future in Science. Biostandups honours Dr. Renu Agarwal as “SHERO”.

Dr. Renu Agrawal had been working as Chief Scientist in the Food Microbiology Department and is also a CSIR-CFTRI Rural development programme  coordinator at CFTRI, Mysore, India and CSIR nodal coordinator for food science and nutrition. This is a nationwide programme to empower the 800 million people around the nation.  Presently, she is working as Advisor, outreach activities at CFTRI. She has represented India as a team leader taking Scientific delegation for Asia meet at Indonesia, Bali nominated by DST, Government of India which was on food policies.She is in research since last 32 years.  She had her PhD from University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Her areas of specialization include biotransformation of inexpensive and readily available precursor compounds into high valued, high cost bioactive molecules, microbial physiology, fermentation and probiotics.  She has received many externally funded project grants as principal investigator from DBT (Department of Biotechnology) and DST (Department of Science and Technology) Govt. of India and Bilateral International programmes with Bulgaria and Argentina.

Her path breaking and innovative research is evidenced by her publications. She has developed many innovative functional foods oriented towards improving health by natural means. She has been guiding students for M.Sc, M. phil and PhD for thesis in Biotechnology and Microbiology. She has published more than 60 research papers in peer reviewed national and international journals. She has presented more than 160 papers in various national and international conferences and has 20 patents to her credit with three microbial processes where the technology has been transferred to more than 100 industries being used by the common man. She is a scientist of international repute as evidenced by her advanced research and contribution to industry sector which has helped in getting revenue and taking microbiological processes for the benefit of common man. She has been honored as “Fellow of Association of Microbiologists of India”,’ Fellow member of International Society of Biotechnology’, Fellow of National Academy of Biological Sciences and “Fellow Society of Applied Biotechnology”. She has bagged the “Women Achievers award- 2008’ by the “International Guild of Women Achievers” and India International Friendship society, 2010.

She has been selected as the “Best woman scientist” by National Academy of biological sciences, 2010, felicitated by Rotary Inner wheel for scientific excellence with “Suguna Award” and Institution of Engineers, Mysore unit. She is the editor of Research Journal of Biotechnology and ADC. She is a  reviewer of many national and international Journals . She has been invited to write book chapters in many Indian and Foreign books like Marcell Dekkar, USA. She has published nine book chapters in different books. She is presently writing a book on probiotics for “New India Publishing house” New Delhi. Her work has won many best paper awards at the national and international conferences. Her team won at AMI 2002, 2004 again at ICFOST 2004 and international conference at Chennai 2007, Delhi 2009, Bulgaria, 2007 and Argentina, 2009,India 2010, 2011, 2012 and again in 2013, 2014 to name a few. She is a faculty of M.Sc Food Technology at CFTRI and a faculty for ACSIR. She has served as the president of ‘Association of Microbiologists of India” and has been a member of many international Technical Advisory Board. She has been on the National committees of NCERT of national Science Talent Search, scientist selection boards of UPSC, DST and DBT and many technical committees’ internationally in Dubai, Bulgaria, Argentina and Indonesia etc.

In rotary inner wheel she has been awarded the best secretary in the district 318 for two times and best ISO twice. She has won many prizes for best poetry, lyrics, essay writing, debates etc at the national level. She has been serving the society by her work. She is a philanthropist and she is running many fellowships for poor meritorious students, constructed pre fixed auto stand in Mysore for public, Initiated a fellowship for rural work for PhD students of Acsir at CFTRI. She has been teaching one girl child every year. She has been conducting annual national level Novel competition on burning topics at Akhila Bhartiya Parishad, Rajasthan.

Now she has been selected to Chair the Expert Committee on Scheme for Young Scientists and Technologists (SYST), Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi. SYST plays an important role in nurturing young scientists with their ideas to undertake projects of societal relevance and selection of the same.

Science and technology always interested me. From the beginning I was interested in going into the depth and to prepare products scientifically which could be utilized by the common man raising their health and make them self-sufficient raising the economy. This made me to think and work with probiotics. I was very fortunate to have very dedicated students and we could contribute in the field of probiotics. In this regard I received grants at the national and international levels which were given to me by DST and DBT.I also guided TWAS- DBT and TWAS –CSIR fellows sharing science and bridging the developing countries together.

Sabeera: What is the current status of Biotechnology in India?

Renu: Biotechnology is growing at a rapid pace in India. Especially the agriculture sector and Industrial sector with newer techniques, new enzymes and new molecules. Environment is another field of current status.

Sabeera: Biotechnology is big world. Which part of Biotechnology is more advancing in India?

Renu: In my view agriculture, Industrial sector and environment.

Sabeera: You once held the position of “Professional Women advisory board” at Cambridge. Please tell us about your experience?

Renu: At Cambridge, this is a professional body of women which documents the credibility and the work of various women around the globe as you have contacted me. This is checked by the advisors in different fields.

Sabeera: You were nominated and award winner of NABS Best Women Scientist Award. How did that happen?

Renu: National Academy of Biological sciences is a scientific academy which calls for applications every year. Many scientists apply. The most meritorious gets the award. It is not nomination but an award.

Sabeera: You are actively involved in many programmes associated with women’s role in Science. What motivates you to contribute your time for Women in Science?

Renu: Yes, That’s right Sabeera. I am a social reformer and would appreciate men and women to work together hand in hand with equal respect, equal pay and equality in all ways.

Sabeera: Among all your prestigious awards and recognitions which was the most memorable to you?

Renu: Dear Sabeera as I look at it each one has its importance and each has a specific place for me as my children and my students.

Sabeera: Please share about your featured book “Probiotics and Their Role in Improving Human Health”?

Renu: About the book:

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO), the Probiotic organisms are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts could confer a health benefit to the host. These contribute a major role towards the human health. These can be incorporated into the food products or may also be used in different dosage forms.

It is important to have a detailed knowledge of the required   microorganisms before using it. Care needs to be taken during the selection, utilization against toxic pathogenic microorganisms to improve the gut. Probiotics help to reduce NO synthesis. They simulate mucus production; enhance the proliferation of gut epithelial cell. They have the capacity for immunomodulation and also to inhibit endogenous carcinogen production. They produce short-chain fatty acid and provide nutrients to the enterocytes. Probiotics have been clinically proved in promoting health. This book has been divided into chapters which will guide the readers for better understanding for different aspects starting from isolation to usage and safety of probiotics. The book also includes the mechanisms of action, animal, and human studies as a support for these properties.

The book has also covered the various probiotic products in the market.

The book also discusses the functional roles of probiotics in human health for the well-being. It has analyzed different intestinal disorders. The book also highlights the ability of probiotics to modulate gut microbiota and dietary management. It discusses various advancements made towards the preparation of probiotic food in the market. Among the major products covered in this book are the dairy  and nondairy products, fermented milks and cheeses.These products carry probiotic bacteria as food carriers which needs to be alive in order to impart beneficial effects. The book also discusses on the future of probiotics. In totality, the book gives an overview of the fundamental concepts, mechanisms, therapeutic actions, technological aspects, and future research related with probiotic bacteria.

The book will be helpful for students, scientists, pharmacist’s, nutritionists, scientists working in the field of gastrointestinal disorders and other diseases, companies which are into new functional foods or nutraceuticals. It will also be helpful to the professionals in public health and to clinicians.

The book has brought about the successful link between food and health.

Sabeera: We need more women as pioneers in Science and technology. Do you agree?

Renu: Definitely, without doubt!

Sabeera: Gender parity in Science is a global issue. Please share your opinion?

Renu: I think each woman needs to push herself very hard and make her place whatever may be the occupation or situation. They should become policy makers and not only followers. For this they need to be assertive, speak their mind and lead no matter what!

Sabeera: Please state top 5 problems women face in Science?

Renu: It is in any field not only in science that a woman faces problems due to biological reasons-

  1. Marriage in a different place
  2. Giving birth to children
  3. Post child re- establishing in profession
  4. Peer pressure
  5. Time to think

Sabeera: Do you have suggestions to raise the bar for women in Science?


  1. Raise age for jobs
  2. Child care facility around the campus
  3. Support from seniors in upcoming projects, probably make them co-PI!

Sabeera: Can we erase gender gap in Science and technology?

Renu: Yes, with determination, perseverance and focusing the goal. I think I did that, I am a mother of two children with not much support system.

Sabeera: What inspires you to keep up focused towards success?

Renu: Probably I am a very motivated person and no problem turns me down as I keep finding solutions for them. I believe look at the solutions and not on the problems.

Sabeera: Any advice to coming generation of women professionals?

Renu: I think these days the girls are very professional. However, I would say keep chasing your dreams!

Sabeera: Finally, please share your opinion about our start-up “Biostand ups” with our readers?

Renu: I think it is a wonderful thing to happen. Every morning I go to twitter and see what new this start up is doing. This gives me immense happiness and I tweet again. I also like your web page which is very creatively done and one can be acquainted with so much in one glance. It is a wonderful idea to have a startup from Purdue like this one which has developed educational mobile applications to bring scientific people together. This will also help for their special learning in newer areas.

I would call it a passion. I feel very satisfied to empower people and make them feel good. I have been coordinating for food science technologies of CFTRI with farmers, disabled, women farmers, rural women, bakers and more. I volunteer for family counselling at Mysore helpline for the last 18 years and am active member as advisor in Mysore Grahakara Parishad where we take up various issues of the city. Being a member of Rotary Innerwheel I have served the society in various avenues. The district adjudged me as the best secretary and best International officer twice. Being the task force member of committees at DST I encourage young researchers who propose goof for common man.

I have been bestowed with REX-UN Karamveer Chakra which is a very coveted award for the work carried out for the society. Again, the number of women are less.

December - 2016

Prof. Gaiti Hasan

Senior Professor
National Centre for Biological Science
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
Bangalore – India
Email ID: gaiti@ncbs.res.in

Biostandups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards, we had a great opportunity to share views and opinions from Professor Gaiti Hasan from National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore – India.  She is one  true motivation for all the women who wish to see future in Neurobiology. Biostandups honours Prof. Gaiti as “SHERO”.

Molecular genetics, Neuroscience, InsP3 and Calcium signaling in neuronal function.

Please visit Prof. Gaiti Hasan official page HERE

Neelofar: Who has inspired you in your life how and why?

Gaiti: My mother. She managed both family and career calmly and efficiently. She was a role model for her colleagues and multiple students throughout her career as a college and university teacher.

Neelofar: How do you motivate others?

Gaiti: By sharing my excitement of their work with them.

Neelofar: How do you define success and how do you measure up to your own definition?

Gaiti: Success to me signifies leaving original, meaningful and lasting knowledge from my groups research. The test of its originality is that other groups would be unlikely to ask the same question. For it to be meaningful and lasting it should lead to newer questions in the field, which over time impact broader areas in biology. By these criteria I would say I am about 75% successful.

Neelofar: What excites you the most about your scientific research?

Gaiti: Biology is complex and to understand this complexity one has to learn to ask the right questions. The most exciting part of research is the realization of having asked the right question.

Neelofar: Tell me something you have done that goes against all social conventions, yet you did it anyway because it was the right thing to do!

or Can you tell me about a situation that was difficult and you were able to overcome it?

Gaiti: When I see something wrong happening and I think I have the ability to change it I will do everything possible within my means to set it right.

Neelofar: Do you think gender parity is lacking in India? if yes can you reason it out?

Gaiti: Yes, it is lacking.  Most men are too comfortable with the existing situation because it is in their favor and are unlikely to work at changing it.  We need many more women in positions of decision making to change this situation and mindset.

Neelofar: What guidance would you provide for current and next yearning women researchers in India?

Gaiti: Take up research as a long-term career only if you enjoy spending many hours in the lab. You should be able to cope with failure on a regular basis and it is essential to have a supportive family. You need your family to step in and help when you have to put in extra time at work or to attend a meeting.

Neelofar: What is your proudest moment as a scientist or researcher?

Gaiti: There is no single moment that I can recollect. Having students and post-docs from my lab do well in their independent positions maks me proud.

Neelofar: If you had to choose one thing, what do you think you’re the best in the world at?

Gaiti: I don’t think I can claim to be the best at the world in anything. I believe I can communicate the work from my group reasonably well to both scientific and non-scientific audiences.

Neelofar: How would you like people to remember you?

Gaiti: Motivational and considerate of others

Neelofar: What would you be doing right now if you weren’t here? (this position)

Gaiti: Working at improving our cities to become more environmentally friendly and aesthetically pleasing.

Neelofar: What’s the biggest thing you struggle at this position?

Gaiti: Trying to achieve reliable results in a limited time.

Neelofar: What popular general advice do you disagree with?

Gaiti: I do not agree with the general advice that a scientist should try to publish a vast quantity of research papers. The quality of individual publications and their impact on the field is much more relevant and lasting. Producing such quality publications takes more time and intellectual effort.

Neelofar: What creative things do you do to develop a likeable culture/environment?

Gaiti: I am not sure about this.

Neelofar: What is your favorite metaphor to describe yourself?

Gaiti: Better ask my students – I am sure they would have a good metaphor!

Neelofar: Last question, what is your opinion on our start-up project Biostandups.com?

Gaiti: I am not very familiar with it. It seems like a good idea. I hope it can impact Indian science in a positive way.


Assist. Prof. Nishi Srivastava

Assistant Professor
Department of Physics
Birla Institute of Technology
Email ID: nishi.bhu@gmail.com

Biostandups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards, we had a great opportunity to share views and opinions from Assistant Professor Nishi Srivastava from BIT, Ranchi, India.  She is one  true motivation for all the women who wish to see future in Physics and Aerosols. Biostandups honours Nishi as “SHERO”.

My research interest is primarily towards aerosols, very tiny particles but capable of altering the climate by a significant amount. Several national and international research groups are working in this field to quantify the impact of aerosols over our climate but still its effects on climate are an open question. Aerosols are important in climate related issues as well as in health related issues. Considering the wide effects of aerosols, I explored two main issues related with the anthropogenic aerosols: Role of anthropogenic aerosols in radiation budget and Impact of anthropogenic aerosols in air pollution physics.

The first effect is more related with the climate modification while second one is directly affecting the human health. These objectives are dealing with socio-climate effects of aerosols. With the objective to explore the source of anthropogenic aerosols, chemical transport model can also play a significant role. This approach has been used to reduce the gap in understanding of the air pollution over the Indian region, which has severe air-pollution problems both in spatial and temporal scales and very less attention is paid to this serious issue in India. The validation of model results suggested an improved chemical transport model which could address the air pollution problems over Indian region with sufficient accuracy.

This would in turn help us to strengthen or quantify the air pollution problem which would then be useful for addressing the impacts due to air-pollution on regional climate and people.

Sabeera: What was your motivation to peruse Science and Research as career?

Nishi: My father is my inspiration for my career in science and research.

Sabeera: Are there any Unforgettable moments of your career?

Nishi: Getting admission at India’s premier institute “Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore” for Ph.D. was an unforgettable moment in my academic career.

Sabeera: How do you want to help society through your research work?

Nishi: Research in Atmospheric Science may play a pivotal role in pollution control and environmental cleaning, thus

Sabeera: Which part of the career do you prefer most, teaching or research?

Nishi: Both fields have equal priority in my career. A balance in both is needed.

Sabeera: Please tell us about “Cellular-Mix- PRoFIRMEC PhD” scholarship that you have received?

Nishi: “Cellular-Mix- PRoFIRMEC PhD” scholarship was offered by embassy of France in India to Indian national to work in France and develop a bilateral relation in field of research.

Sabeera: What was the advantage of getting support through “Cellular-Mix- PRoFIRMEC PhD” scholarship?

Nishi: It was a good opportunity to interact with foreigner team and share new research ideas with them.

Sabeera: What are your future Career plans and where do you want to see yourself in the near future?

Nishi: As a successful academics and researcher.

Sabeera: Do you have any women physicists as a role model who motivates you?

Nishi: Madam Curie

Sabeera: How to do you feel about being selected for SERB Overseas Postdoctoral Fellowship Program Awards to perform your future research at University of Strasbourg, France?

Nishi: I am feeling very happy as this is a prestigious scholarship provided by Indian Government to Indian nationals to excel in their research field.

Sabeera: What is the most exciting part of winning SERB Overseas Postdoctoral Fellowship Program Awards to perform your future research at University of Strasbourg, France?

Nishi: Winning SERB Overseas Postdoctoral Fellowship Program Awards provided me an opportunity to work in one of the best team in chemical transport modelling.

Sabeera: According to reports India is lacking women empowerment in Science and technology. What is your opinion about it?

Nishi: Hopefully the scenario will change in future.

Sabeera: How can we erase the gender gap in Science and technology for women, any advice?

Nishi: Parents should encourage girls to pursue Science and Mathematics.

Sabeera: Have you ever encounter gender gap in your career so far?

Nishi: Though there are various hindrances in our society, but fortunately I have not encountered with them. My parents, husband, brother and whole family are strong pillars of my career. Without their support it would have been difficult for me to be here where I am now.

Sabeera: Please tell us about your take on our new start-up “Biostandups.com”

Nishi: It is really a nice and appreciable start from “Biostandups.com”. Thanks for this interview and wish all success to your site.

Story books reading, painting and other craft activities.


Professor Sulabha K. Kulkarni


Visiting Faculty

Physics Department


Email ID: s.kulkarni@iiserpune.ac.in

Biostandups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards, we had a great opportunity to share views and opinions from Professor Sulabha K Kulkarni from IISER, Pune, India.  She is one of true motivation for all the women who wish to see future in Physics and nanoparticles. Biostandups honours Prof. Sulabha as “SHERO”.

Prof. Sulabha K Kulkarni is currently working at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune, India as a Visiting Faculty. Prior to this, she has been a UGC Professor at IISER, Pune. Before joining IISER, Pune, she was in the Department of Physics at the University of Pune for a period of 32 years, where she introduced a course on Nanotechnology at the post-graduate level. She has taught this course later, at IISER, Pune also. Besides Nanotechnology she has also taught Condensed Matter Physics, Surface Science, Materials Science, Experimental Methods in Physics and Laboratory classes at the post-graduate level.

She has authored over 270 research publications including 120 publications in Nanotechnology in peer-reviewed journals of international repute. Her publications are on metal, semiconductor and oxide nanoparticles, core-shell particles, metallic multilayers, hard coatings, gas-solid interactions, metallic glasses, etc. She has written a popular textbook – “Nanotechnology: Principles and Practices” (English) whose third edition has been co-published with Springer International. Apart from this, she has also authored the books “Carbon: the wonder element” (English and Marathi) and “Nanoscience and Nanotechnology” and “Nanotechnology of Nature” (both Marathi). The latter received an award and recognition from the State Government of Maharashtra. In addition, she has co-authored, “Laboratory Manual in Solid State Physics” for undergraduate students.

She has supervised 38 PhD students. She was the coordinator of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) Nano Unit at the University of Pune as well at IISER, Pune. From time to time, she has worked at various institutes and universities abroad – in Germany, France, Italy, UK, Japan and South Korea. She has attended a phenomenal number of national and international conferences. She is a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Science (Allahabad), Indian Academy of Science (Bengaluru), Indian National Science Academy (New Delhi), Asia Pacific Materials Society (Beijing) and Maharashtra Academy of Sciences (Mumbai). She has been very active in the popularisation of Science in India.

Prof. Sulabha. K. Kulkarni has made significant contributions in the field of Nanoscience, Materials Science and Surface Science. Her work on nanomaterials, hard coatings and high strength aerogels is noteworthy. She was a co-ordinator of DST Unit on Nanoscience in the University of Pune and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune. In the University of Pune facilities like Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, UV-Vis, Photoluminescence, FTIR etc are established and are being used by several students and scientists. A clean room also was established. All this has given a tremendous boost to the research activity in Pune University. In IISER, Pune also state of art facilities are developed under the DST Nano Unit.

She has extensively worked in the field of surface science, specifically in Photoelectron Diffraction as well as Photoelectron Spectroscopy of surfaces and interfaces. She has played a major role in the programs of National interests like IUC-DAEF Photoelectron Spectroscopy beam line design now commissioned at INDUS-I, RRCAT Indore. She was involved in the development of monochromators for Neutron Beam line of IUC-DAEF, Mumbai, installed at Dhruva reactor, BARC, Mumbai. She has established various facilities like metallic multilayer deposition, arc deposition, plasma polymerised film deposition, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ultra Violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS), High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) etc techniques in the Department of Physics, University of Pune. A large number of students, scientists and industries have benefited due to these facilities.

She has written a book on nanoscience. She has written three popular science in Marathi (one co- authored) and English books as well as co-authored a Laboratory Manual in Solid State Physics Experiments, for undergraduate students and teachers. She also participated in the laboratory kits development under UGC ULP Program. During 1994-98 she was Executive Editor of “Physics Education” journal. She often writes popular science articles in local Newspapers and has given several technical/semi-popular lectures in public, colleges, schools, various institutes and radio talks.

My group is interested in developing size and shape dependent nanomaterials, self assembly and understand their properties. We work on semiconductor Quantum Dots (QD) graphene QDs, carbon QDs, plasmonic materials like Au, Ag and their size and shape dependent absorption properties. These materials are useful in sensors, photocatalysis and photovoltaics.  Our interest lies also in multiferroic materials. We are also interested in developing materials useful as thermoelectric materials. We develop variety of aerogels, ultra low density materials. Aerogels are useful as insulating (thermal/electric) materials with applications in space vehicles, sound proof rooms, as window material etc. basically as energy saving materials.

Visit Home Page : Prof. Sulabha K Kulkarni

Sabeera: Do you recall what started your enthusiasm for physics and Nanosciences?

Sulabha: Yes, we had a wonderful teacher at M. Sc. in the University of Pune, (Late) Prof. M. R. Bhide, who used to teach us Nuclear Physics. What he taught us I did not pursue as my career but certainly I got interested in Physics due to his way of teaching. He inspired me as well as showed the path to do research. It was interesting for me to understand that the way various materials9or world around us) behave is not just simple but there is a lot of science and laws behind it which can be understood through research. Then my enthusiasm was nurtured by my Ph. D. Supervisor Prof. Nigavekar who helped me to become a scientist.

During my Postdoc in Germany I worked in the area of Surface Science and my view of research further broadened. When nanoscience was not termed as ‘nanoscience’ (around 1990) I thought that small particles have large surface to volume ratio, therefore I thought of working on such material. As I started working on nanometer size particles, I came to know that there was more to it than just surface to volume ratio. With time my interest grew and saw that Nanoscience is becoming an important area.

Sabeera: What excites you the most about your scientific research?

Sulabha: New results, new ideas!

Sabeera: How do you want to help society or scientific community with your research work?

Sulabha: I did research and teaching in the University of Pune (now Savitribai Phule Pune University) for ~ 37 years and IISER, Pune for 7 years. I taught various subjects in Physics, supervised large number of project students, Ph. D. and M. Phil students. I gave and continue to give a large number of scientific as well as popular lectures in schools, colleges, Universities and public lectures all over India. I wrote books, including popular books, gave radio talks, wrote popular articles in local News papers. I also was/am member of various scientific committees, member of editorial boards of science journals, referee to Ph.D thesis of students from many Universities, member of selection committees for the recruitment of faculty in various institutes in India. I think that is my small contribution to society and scientific community. I do not have time left for any other social activities left!

Sabeera: How do you manage to achieve success as women scientist in India?

Sulabha: I do not think women scientists are different from men scientists. Science knows no gender! I think whatever success I might have got is because of this attitude.

Sabeera: Among your greatest achievements, which one is your most memorable achievement?

Sulabha: This I cannot answer. All my work gave me equal joy whether a publication in a very reputed journal or medium kind of journal. I put all my efforts in every work.

Sabeera: Do you think gender parity is lacking in science for women in India?

Sulabha: No, although I was working in a better environment than many other women.

Sabeera: What are major troubles you’ve needed to confront and/or right now face being a research woman in India?

Sulabha: Nothing particular.

Sabeera: Please share with us the type of difficulties women is facing currently in industry and research in India?

Sulabha: I think women have major ‘time’ problem. They need to spend lot of time in daily duties at home and this somehow cannot be avoided. So far what I have seen, women have to take care of home more than men. So this is a major problem for those working in industry or do research. They always have to exert themselves much more than men.

Sabeera: What guidance would you provide for current and next yearning women researchers in India?

Sulabha: Work as much as possible in the area which you like or think is important. Your output is your reward. If you are faithful to your work, may be sooner or later the success will come to you. Success comes in different forms. If you work well, you will get the recognition automatically, you don’t have to run after it! It’s a waste of time! One may or may not even get awards/prizes. However, do we work for it?

Sabeera: Can you please tell us in brief about your thoughts to improve gender gap in Science for next women generation? What kind of work is need to be done?

Sulabha: I think gender gap will reduce if women first stop thinking that they are different as far as science is concerned. They have to take challenges in work. There are of course many places (states) in India where women have genuine problems as women are not treated well either by families or at work place. In such situations women colleagues need to be united and strongly help each other. Often women do not unite and think that its not their problem unless it affects them. As far as for helping/promoting women, there are various schemes and awards instituted by various funding agencies. Women can use such avenues but they should slowly prepare themselves for open competition. Additionally, efforts must be made to include women in various committees, given the responsibilities as chairpersons, include them in conferences as invited speakers, deliberate attempts should be made to include them in science academies. One can see that the girls shine at various competitive examinations, board and University examinations. But what happens to them? Large number of girls do not make careers later. All the financial provisions should be made to encourage girls to make proper career.

Sabeera:  How can we, as a community, do a better job of sharing the success stories of women in science?

Sulabha: May be through social media. In schools and colleges girl students should be informed what women have achieved and they too can achieve what they desire. Books on/by women could be circulated.

Sabeera: Being a standing committee member for women empowerment in science and technology, what advantages you see for the betterment of women researchers?

Sulabha: I think there are certain improvements needed in the existing schemes for women as well as introducing new schemes. We even lack data base on women scientists. Some steps are being taken about it. I am sure that new policies would come forward soon which will create the conducive atmosphere for women to contribute in science and technology.

Sabeera: What is the best act or policy to be implemented in India to raise the bar for women in science?

Sulabha: I do not think there is any bar as such but due to our social structure, women are suppressed not in science but many other areas. Achievements of women if projected properly, slowly the hurdles will be reduced.

Sabeera: Last question, what is your opinion on our start-up project Biostandups.com?

Sulabha: Very good move.

Reading & Music


Asst Professor Roopali Gandhi

Assistant Professor

Harvard Medical School

New Research Building

Boston, MA 02115

Email: rgandhi@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Biostandups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards, we had a great opportunity to share views and opinions from Assistant Professor Roopali Gandhi from Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.  She is one of true motivation for all the women who wish to see future in research and science, especially to set their foot on foreign lands.

Indian origin Harvard scientist

Dr. Roopali Gandhi grew up in New Delhi, India. She is one of three daughters to her parents. She did her PhD thesis work at National Institute of Immunology and Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi. During her PhD she was involved in the identification and characterization of anti-lymphocytic antibodies from systemic lupus erythematosus. She found that the anti-lymphocytic antibodies can identify apoptotic cells and can initiate a process of epitope spreading which plays an important role in Lupus pathogenesis. Dr. Gandhi joined the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in 2004 as a fellow and was promoted to Instructor in 2008. She was appointed as Assistant Professor in Neurology department at Harvard Medical School in 2012. In the last ten years at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dr. Gandhi initiated several research projects related to basic immunology, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.

Dr. Gandhi research is focused on understanding the mechanism of cellular immunity; particularly, induction and characterization of regulatory immune cells and identification of a biomarker for MS. She has identified several circulating miRNAs, which have the potential to serve a role of MS biomarker. The major research focus of her lab includes-(1) the identification of disease-related biomarkers, (2) the study of molecular mechanisms that regulate immune cell function, and (3) understanding the pathways linked to treatment effects. She is a member of neurology and immunology societies and a reviewer of neurology journals and grants.

Visit Home Page : Dr. Roopali Gandhi

Sudarshan: Do you recall what started your enthusiasm for science?

Dr. Gandhi: I started my enthusiasm for science when I was very little (I think 5 years) as I was always curious to understand science around me and in the sky. I remember having discussions and innovative ideas with my dad and sisters while lying under beautiful blue skies filled with the shinning stars. My curiosity and courage to do things in different ways put me in danger many times ☺. I remember how disappointed and shocked I was, literally, when one time I put a leaf stem in an electrical outlet to make it light like a lamp.

Sudarshan: What excites you the most about your scientific research?

Dr. Gandhi: I am most excited that one day my contributions could help find cures for disease so that patients can enjoy a full life span with their families and loved ones.

Sudarshan: Do you think in gender parity is lacking in science for women?

Dr. Gandhi: Yes, I think gender parity is lacking in India. During early years of my education, I observed several times that my girlfriends were less favoured to get study support compared to their brothers. Thankfully during my graduate program, I performed my research at a well-reputed immunology institute (National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi India) where women were motivated and supported. I think with education and awareness in the current era, we are overcoming these differences significantly.

Sudarshan: What are a few troubles you’ve needed to confront and/or right now face being a woman in Research in India?

Dr. Gandhi: Thankfully, my research story is good and a happy one. I have to say that I am very lucky and did not face any challenges being a woman. I have parents who always motivated us, to be our best version. My husband supported my career a lot. Throughout my research career, I found mentors and peers who supported me tremendously. And because of this support, motivation and encouragement, I never gave up. I feel proud to be a woman and a scientist.

Sudarshan: Please share with us the type of difficulties women is facing currently in industry and research in India?

Dr. Gandhi: The number of Indian women in science is exceptionally increasing.  But it still feels that scientific communities, families, and society in general are not providing enough support, respect or acknowledgment for women for their scientific effort. As research is a form of art that needs passion and long time commitment.

So women in India need support from their partners and families for their research careers. They need resources and career guiding programs to direct their careers in research. They need the support structure to complain and report sexual abuse problems or other threats. Women also need other women as mentors to get the encouragement and guidance needed to carve out their career paths.

Sudarshan: What guidance would you provide for other and next yearning women researchers in India?

Dr. Gandhi: I have great respect for all the working-women and mothers. I would encourage them to keep going to reach their potential. I would tell them that it is not easy, but it is possible with continuous effort, hard work, and commitment. Thankfully we are in such a great era of time where many women promoting programs are available, and gender bias is slowly fading away.

Let’s use this opportunity to write a new story that our daughters in next generation won’t have to face the same struggles that women of our age or previous generations faced. Let’s create a world with no gender biases or discrimination. Let’s treat our daughters the way we treat our sons. I would also advise women and men in leadership roles to strongly support their peers and juniors, through their experience and guidance, to make junior’s career journey less challenging but more rewarding.

Sudarshan:  Can please tell us in brief about your thoughts to improve gender parity in Science for next generation women? What work is left to do?

Dr. Gandhi: In today’s era I think gender parity exists at conscious or subconscious level even in developed countries like USA. There is a great article published http://www.huffingtonpost.com/lisa-marie-jenkins/unconscious-gender-bias-e_b_7447524.html and discussed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqZA8hu4jN8. I guess it will take several decades before these gender biases will disappear and “Then” there will be equal number of woman as men, who will reach to the top positions in science and in industry. We need to keep designing programs for women’s training in science and in leadership positions.

We need to add more resources for their career building, such as funding opportunities, day-care facility, maternity leave, etc (eg; http://www.iusstf.org/story/53-68-U-S—-India-Women-in-Science-Cooperation.html). We need to connect women to women through special seminars or mentoring circles. Easier said than done, but every man and woman in Indian society needs to overcome the perception that “woman is a homemaker” and “man is a bread earner” to establish gender parity in India.

Sudarshan: Last question, how can we, as a community, do a better job of sharing the stories of women in science?

Dr. Gandhi: You have initiated a great link and I hope you continue to do this very important work. Creating a working group for women or a blog on your website would be helpful to share and learn from each other. To add diversity and more impact, I would also suggest that you approach women from other minority groups and developed cultures to gain experiences from their career journeys.


Sumita Jha


Department of Botany,

University of Calcutta

Kolkata 700 019

Email: sumitajha.cu@gmail.com

Bio standups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards we had great opportunity to share views and opinions from Prof. Sumita Jha,  professor in Botany from University of Calcutta-Kolkata, who is actively involved in raising her voice to bring gender parity and create new strategies to improve working opportunities for women in science in India. She is a one true motivation for all the women who wish to see future of more women in research and science, especially in India.

Professor. Sumita Jha, a Botanist and plant biotechnologist obtained her B.Sc. (Hons.) degree in Botany from Lady Brabourne College in Kolkata (1973) and her M.Sc. degree in Botany from Calcutta University in 1975. She earned her Ph.D. (Botany) in 1981 from University of Calcutta and has since been active in the areas of Plant Cytogenetics & Plant Biotechnology research and teaching.  She has published 122 articles in International and National Journals along with 16 Book Chapters.

To her credit, Professor Jha has mentored several students for their Ph.D. degree, has initiated and engaged in numerous International Research Collaborations, has served on various Advisory Committees and has garnered prestigious awards for her contributions to academic excellence.  Notable among these are the INSA Science Academy Medal for Young Scientist (1983), the Prof. Hiralal Chakravarty Award by ISCA (1989), the UGC Career Award for young teachers (1994-1997), Membership of the Plant Science Committee, DST Govt. of India (2007-2012) and Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, India (2008).

Professor Jha has an extensive administrative experience and has served with distinction as Coordinator of the M.Sc. Program in Genetics (2002-2009), Head, Department of Genetics (2009-2011; 2013 – 2014), Head, Department of Botany (2007-2009), Deputy Programme Co-ordinator, CAS in Botany (2001-2004) and as Programme Co-ordinator UGC-CAS in Botany (2004-2015) at Calcutta University.

It was our greatest honour to get in personal with Prof. Jha. She was very kind to share her opinions through our interviews sessions.

Professor Sumita Jha is a true “Shero” of India.

We thank Prof. Jha for sharing her knowledge with us.

Hermaphroditism is the ruling phenomenon in most of the flowering plants in terms of their choice of sexual expression. In cucurbits, we find a number of genera with varied sexual systems. Also, cucurbits are a large vegetable yielding family for which identification and understanding the modes of sex expression in different species can help to build basic knowledge to improve breeding strategies in future. Considering these aspects, chromosome evolution and development of molecular marker in dioecious cucurbit genera has been the prime objectives of current research in my laboratory. Also, we are part of the team developing a Comprehensive Chromosome and Genome Database for Plants recognized as one of the Bioresource Information Centre (BRIC-III) of Indian Bioresource Information Network(IBIN) funded by DBT(GOI).

Visit Home Page : Prof. Sumita Jha Home

Sabeera: What gets you truly excited about Scientific life?

Sumita Jha: Finding a highly motivated student willing to pursue scientific research against all social odds.

Sabeera: What is your most fascinating area of research?

Sumita Jha: Working with plants which do not behave and respond the way we want them to!

Sabeera: What motivates you to do your very best?

Sumita Jha: Guiding PhD students and developing new teaching courses.

Sabeera: What one thing have you not done that you really want to do? What are you waiting for?

Sumita Jha: I could not go for long term (>3 months) post doctoral research abroad and I have done what I could with two children, a very supportive family, to the best of my abilities as well as limitations in teaching as well as in research. I am waiting for my students to excel.

Sabeera: What is the significance of Women empowerment in Science and technology in India?

Sumita Jha: Talented Women scientist drop out in large numbers, unable to “scientifically” deal with their change in status after marriage.  There are two sides of this situation, one the women scientist themselves need to realize while their role in their family is indispensable, they can join the mainstream with confidence anytime, if they wish to, they only need to prioritize their own potential in science. They need to be committed and professional in their approach.

On the other hand, even experienced faculties/scientists are not very encouraging towards women scholars /scientists who need to be given opportunities and scope to join the mainstream after a break. They need to realize women taking a break in career are not for their “weakness” or “personal benefit” but for the society in general (taking care of children/elder members of family) in long term. We need a change in attitude of both men and women in science.

Sabeera:  Do you think women empowerment in Science and Technology is underpinned in India?

Sumita Jha: Yes. There are various schemes and opportunities for women scientist in India now, which was lacking during our times. Several other are being thought of, to bring a major change. This is all very encouraging.

Sabeera: Have you ever encounter gender gap in your career so far?

Sumita Jha: No

Sabeera: Why women in science Gender equity is important in India?

Sumita Jha: We get large number of women for doctoral research but the number is very low in scientist/ faculty positions. Policy making bodies are usually male dominant, while pool of talented, recognized women scientists are not lacking in India.

Sabeera: Can we erase gender parity for women in science in India?

Sumita Jha: Very difficult.

Sabeera: How do we achieve Gender parity in Science and technology in India?

Sumita Jha: The major aspect is change in attitude of men and women in society towards each other and talented women in science in particular.

Sabeera: Are there any advantages of Gender equity in Science?

Sumita Jha: Yes, it effects future generations of men and women in science.

Sabeera: You are a member of the prestigious standing committee for promoting women in science organised by Union ministry of science & technology. What is your role as a member?

Sumita Jha: To explore what can be done and also need to be undone to improve workplace environment and opportunities for women with potential in science.

Sabeera: Last question, please give your feedback on our new start-up Biostandups?

Sumita Jha: Informative, current, helpful for young scientist.


H. S. Savitri


Dept. Biochemistry
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012
Email: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

Bio standups aims to establish awareness on women empowerment in science. Knowledge comes from experience; hence we decided to bring the experience and knowledge from great women scientists who are representing our nation globally. In this regards we had great opportunity to share views and opinions from Prof. H.S. Savitri,  professor in biochemistry from Indian Institute of Science-Bangalore, who is actively involved in raising her voice to bring gender parity and create new strategies to improve working opportunities for women in science in India. She is a one true motivation for all the women who wish to see future of more women in research and science, especially in India.

My research interest is molecular characterization of plant viruses, structure function relationships of viral proteins and enzymes. The molecular mechanism of assembly of single stranded positive sense RNA plant viruses has been established by structure based mutational analysis. These studies have provided a platform for developing chimeric virus like particles as Nano-carriers for disease diagnosis, antibody delivery into mammalian cells and delivery of drugs to target cells. The work on structure and function of non-structural proteins of viruses has underscored the importance of intrinsically disordered domains in interacting with partner host or viral encoded proteins. Molecules that disrupt these interactions could serve as antiviral agents.

Visit: http://biochem.iisc.ernet.in/hssavithri.php

Sabeera: Do you recall what started your enthusiasm for science?

H.S. Savitri: A lecture and test conducted by Sir.C.V.Raman for color blindness in my pre university.

Sabeera: What excites you the most about your scientific research?

H.S. Savitri: Talking to my students on the work carried out by them and discussing with them.

Sabeera: What are a few troubles you’ve needed to confront and/or right now face being a woman in Research?

H.S. Savitri: Less time to focus on other things related to science other than my work and family. I could not attend meetings/conferences many times and recognition for my work came late.

Sabeera: Name one of your all the more difficult profession encounters?

H.S. Savitri: none

Sabeera: We think in India gender parity is lacking in Science and technology for women?

H.S. Savitri: Yes, one must make special efforts to change this. A change in attitude of women that they need not sacrifice either family or profession and that they can excel in both. A change in the attitude of men, that they should remove all hurdles to make women work in par with them.

Sabeera: What guidance would you provide for other yearning women researchers?

H.S. Savitri: Focus on your work and don’t worry if you are not recognized. If you continue to be productive there is no way in which you can be sidelined.

Sabeera: Please share with us the type of difficulties women are facing currently in industry and research of India?

H.S. Savitri: With families becoming nuclear, they dont have the support of elders to care for the kids especially when they are not well. Some men cannot tolerate a women performing better than them and try to undermine them.

Sabeera: how many more years it may take to achieve gender parity in India?

H.S. Savitri: No idea, I do see an improvement though.

Sabeera: Recently we have read in news that you and your colleagues submitted a report to better the working conditions and execution of ladies researchers. Can please tell us in brief about your missions mentioned in that report?

H.S. Savitri: Ensure safe and congenial atmosphere for women to work and attract talented women to occupy decision-making positions.